8.4 Summary


Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that affects millions of people worldwide. Patients with DR can experience sudden visual loss due to vitreous hemorrhage and other complications. The prevalences of DR and DME underscore the need for vigilance in assessing patients suspected of or following up those who are diagnosed with these conditions.  Several classification schemes have been proposed in an attempt to standardize assessments and facilitate the design of treatment strategies. The optimal utilization of the current diagnostic tools should help to minimize the risk of sight-threatening complications for patients with DR and DME.

Test Module 8

1. Which of the following is not a hallmark sign of diabetic retinopathy?

2. What are the defining features of severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy?

3. Which phenotypic pattern of DR is typified by eyes with variable and reversible leakage, microaneurysm turnover >6, an abnormal foveal avascular (ischemic) zone, and more rapid progression to vision-threatening complications (than the other two phenotypes)?

4. Which phenotypic pattern of DR includes eyes with a small amount of abnormal fluorescein leakage, a slow rate of microaneurysm formation, and a normal foveal avascular zone?

5. High-risk characteristics of proliferative diabetic retinopathy include:

6. Why do patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy experience sudden vision loss?

7. Anatomically, diabetic macular edema can be defined as:

8. Circular areas of hard exudates with retinal thickening are caused by:

9. Focal DME is generally associated with less macular thickening, better visual acuity, and less severe retinopathy severity than the diffuse form of the disease.

10. According to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS):