6.9 Inflammation


Inflammation is increasingly recognized as playing a prominent role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. An array of inflammatory mediators are upregulated in diabetes, in response to hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and other stresses. These mediators trigger parainflammatory responses that may cause abnormal reactions between leucocytes and endothelial cells, ultimately leading to damage to retinal microvasculature. This effect is thought to be local, as there is little evidence of association between systemic inflammation and risk of diabetic retinopathy.

Quiz Module 6.9

1. Which types of stresses cause parainfammatory responses?

2. High vitreal levels of VEGF are correlated with: