6.11 Retinal Changes and Edema
Diabetic retinopathy is assessed clinically by observation of changes in the retina. Diabetic eye disease is classified by severity, from no microvascular lesions (no retinopathy); to mild, moderate, or severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Hallmarks of NPDR include microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhages, and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities. Hallmarks of PDR include neovascularization of the optic disc or elsewhere, and preretinal or vitreous hemorrhage.