5.4 Summary


Chronic hyperglycemia can eventually lead to the development of retinopathy, characterized by vascular permeability changes. This altered vascular permeability may lead to diabetic macular edema (DME), accumulation of fluid within the retina that if left untreated can lead to vision loss. Diabetes acts on all retinal cell types including: retinal vessels (endothelial), choroidal, Mueller (glial) and neuronal cells.

Test Module 5

1. Which structure of the eye is avascular under normal conditions?

2. The retina is composed of how many layers of nerve cell bodies?

3. Photoreceptors translates light activity from a biochemical message into an electrical message.

4. What transports blood vessels and ganglion cells to the retina?

5. Why does retinal circulation originate from two separate sources as opposed to one source to supply oxygen to the inner and outer retinal layers?

6. Diabetic Macular Edema is caused by a breakdown of which anatomical structure?

7. Retinal hypoxia from long term diabetes causes.

8. The most common macroglia cell in the retina is?

9. Breakdown of the BRB causes a shift in the balance of hydrostatic and oncotic pressure, resulting in the accumulation of fluid within the extracellular space and the development of macular edema.

10. All of the following cells synthesize VEGF except: